Understands forces and motion.
Benchmark: Understands general concepts related to gravitational force (e.g., every object exerts gravitational force on every other object; this force depends on the mass of the objects and their distance from one another; gravitational force is hard to detect unless at least one of the objects, such as the Earth, has a lot of mass).
Understand the nature of scientific knowledge.
Benchmark: Knows that different models can be used to represent the same thing and the same model can represent different things; the kind and complexity of the model should depend on its purpose.
Basic thinking tool: Attribute Listing