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Assessing Creativity Test 42

Test Number 42
Title Modes of Thinking in Young Children
Author Wallach, M.; Kogan, N.
Category Test Rating Scale
Copyright Date 1965
Availability In text
Age/Grade Level Grade 5
Cost Current information not available
Source Wallach, M. and Kogan, N. Modes of thinking in young children
Address New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
web or e-mail  
Definition Creativity is separate from intelligence. Unique.
Purposes Designed to assess creative ability in two visual and three verbal procedures. Verbal tasks are called instances, alternate uses, and similarities. The two visual tasks are pattern meanings and line meanings. The instruments were developed for the resear
Characteristics Generating Ideas

Fair There is a discussion of definition and purposes, supporting research, and administration directions. Finding the necessary information to administer the test, score it, and interpret and apply the scores is difficult at best. (The instrument is discussi

Poor Validity is not discussed. The word “validity” does not appear in the “Index of Subjects.”

Fair The Split-half correlations on 10 variables on the Creativity Instrument was .51 to .93. The internal consistency was .41. These data are called into question by the limited size of the sample.

Fair A game-like interactional atmosphere is created. Children supply lists of items and tell how many uses can be made of each. They discuss likeness between pairs of objects, and supply meanings to abstract drawings. They complete stories about a child under stress of failure. The Pattern Meaning section uses visual prompts.

Fair Five types of associations related to the number of unique responses to the number of responses are generated. Norms are based on 151 middle class, Protestant, white subjects. This restricts the ability to interpret and apply the scores. However, some journal publications have reported on uses of the tests with more diverse samples.

Fair Some published studies have addressed these issues.

Reviews & Related Lit
Bartlett, M. M., & Davis, G. A. (1974). Do the Wallach and Kogan tests predict real creative behavior? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39, 730. Richards, R. L. (1976). A comparison of selected Guilford and Wallach and Kogan creative thinking tests in conjunction with measures of intelligence. Journal of Creative Behavior, 10, 151-164. McKinney, J. D., & Forman, S. G. (1977). Factor structure of the Wallach-Kogan Tests of Creativity and measures of intelligence and achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 14(1), 41-44. Wallach, M. A. (1970). Creativity. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology, (vol. 1) New York: Wiley. Wallach, M. A. (1971). The intelligence/creativity distinction (pp. 1-32) . New York: General Learning Press. Wallach, M.A., (1985). Creativity testing and Giftedness, in S. D. Harowitz, O'Brien (Ed). Gifted and Talented: Developmental Perspectives. (pp. 99-123).Washington, DC.. American Psychological Association. Wallach, M. A. (1988). Creativity and Talent, in Gronhaug, K., Kaufmann, G. (Ed.) Innovation: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective, Norwegian University Press. Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: a study of the creativity-intelligence distinction . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Wallach, M. A., & Wing, C. W., Jr. (1969). The talented student: a validation of the creativity-intelligence distinction . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Wallbrown, F. H., & Huelsman, C. B., Jr. (1975a). The validity of the Wallach-Kogan creativity operations for inner-city children in two areas of visual arts. Journal of Personality, 43, 109-126. Wallbrown, F. H., Wallbrown, J. D., & Wherry, R. J. (1975b). The construct validity of the Wallach-Kogan test for inner-city children. Journal of General Psychology, 92, 83-96.

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